Casearia sylvestris, copyright Mauricio Mercadante.

Belongs within: Malpighiales.
Contains: Violaceae, Passifloraceae, Salicaceae.

The Violineae are a clade of flowering plants characterised by parietal placentation, with ovules developing on the wall of the ovary.

Characters (from Xi et al. 2012): Flowers haplostemonous; carpels 3; placentation parietal; ovules more than 2 per carpel, crassinucellar, without endothelium; seeds with aril.

|–Achariaceae [Kiggelariaceae] XR12
|    |  i. s.: Ceratiosicyos T00
|    |–+–Trichadenia philippensis DL07
|    |  `–+–Guthriea DL07
|    |     `–Kiggelarieae T00
|    |          |–Pangium XR12
|    |          `–+–Acharia XR12
|    |             `–Kiggelaria XR12
|    `–+–Hydnocarpus XR12
|       |    |–H. alpina SR07
|       |    |–H. heterophylla WM09
|       |    `–H. pentandra SR07
|       `–+–Carpotroche XR12
|          |–Erythrospermum [Erythrospermeae] DL07
|          `–Caloncoba echinata XR12
`–+–+–Violaceae XR12
|  `–Goupia [Goupiaceae] XR12
`–+–+–Malesherbia [Malesherbiaceae] XR12
|  `–+–Passifloraceae XR12
|     `–Turneraceae XR12
|          |–Hyalocalyx YY22
|          |–Mathurina YY22
|          |–Piriqueta YY22
|          |–Streptopetalum YY22
|          |–Wormskioldia YY22
|          |–Tricliceras XR12
|          `–Turnera XR12
|               |–T. oculata CV06
|               |    |–T. o. var. oculata CV06
|               |    `–T. o. var. paucipilosa CV06
|               |–T. subulata P88
|               `–T. ulmifolia XR12
`–+–Lacistemataceae [Lacistematoideae] XR12
|    |–Lacistema robustum XR12
|    `–Lozania XR12
`–+–+–Salicaceae XR12
|  `–Scyphostegia [Scyphostegiaceae] XR12
|       `–S. borneensis XR12
`–Samydaceae XR12
|–Samyda dodecandra J87
|–Lunania mauritii XR12, J87
`–Casearia [Casearieae] XR12
|–C. arborea SWK87
|–C. corymbosa MM96
|–C. decandra SWK87
|–C. guianensis SWK87
|–C. grewiaefolia K03
|–C. multinervosa H90
|–C. nitida XR12
|–C. pachyphylla H03
`–C. sylvestris J87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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