Dunaliella sp., copyright CSIRO.

Belongs within: Tetraphytae.

The Volvocales are a group of solitary or colonial, biflagellate, unicellular green algae. Members of the genus Volvox are known for forming hollow, spherical colonies that may contain tens of thousands of cells.

<==Volvocales [Volvocineae]
    |  i. s.: Pandorina Bory 1824G64, M70
    |           `--P. morum (Muller) Bory 1824M70
    |         Stephanosphaera pluvialisG64
    |--+--+--Protosiphon [Protosiphonaceae]L-BC03
    |  |  |    `--P. botryoidesL-BC03
    |  |  `--GongrosiraL-BC03
    |  |       |--G. clavata [incl. Vaucheria multicapsularis]G64
    |  |       `--G. papuasicaL-BC03
    |  `--Polyblepharidaceae [Phytomonadida, Polyblepharidae]S57
    |       |--PolytomellaBB02
    |       |    |--P. agilisSR02
    |       |    `--P. parvaGLB04
    |       `--+--Spermatozopsis similisMS95
    |          `--+--+--‘Pleurastrum’ insigneMS95
    |             |  `--CharaciumMS95
    |             |       |--C. saccatumMS95
    |             |       `--C. vacuolatumMS95
    |             `--+--Asteromonas Artari 1913MS95, EB93
    |                |    `--A. gracilisMS95 [=Stephanoptera gracilis (Artari) Smith 1933S57]
    |                `--DunaliellaMS95
    |                     |--D. acidophilaPHK96
    |                     |--D. parvaSG99
    |                     |--D. primolectaPHK96
    |                     |--D. salina (Dunal) Teodoresco 1905S57
    |                     |--D. tertiolectaYB03
    |                     `--D. viridisFEF04
    `--+--Volvocaceae [Volvocidae]NM03
       |    |--Pleodorina californicaNM03, C79
       |    |--Eudorina Ehrenberg 1832RA05, M70
       |    |    |--E. californicaR87
       |    |    `--E. elegans Ehrenberg 1832M70
       |    |--GoniumA90
       |    |    |--G. pectoraleC79
       |    |    `--G. socialeC79
       |    `--Volvox Linnaeus 1758L58
       |         |--V. aureusD01
       |         |--V. carteriEDF04
       |         |    |--V. c. f. carteriEDF04
       |         |    `--V. c. f. nagariensisEDF04
       |         |--V. chaos Linnaeus 1758L58
       |         `--V. globator Linnaeus 1758L58 [incl. Volvox stellatusG64, Sphaerosira volvoxG64]
       `--Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg 1835MS95, M70 [Chlamydomonadaceae]
            |  i. s.: C. angulosa Dill 1895M70
            |         C. eugametosGLB04
            |         C. globosaSX97
            |         C. incertaSM03
            |         C. kommaSX97
            |         C. microsphaeraSX97
            |         C. nivalisPHK96
            |         C. noctigamaBB02
            |         C. pulvisculusG64
            |         C. simplexSX97
            |--C. reinhardtii Dangeard 1888TB03, GPN97
            `--+--+--C. moewusiiTB03
               |  `--‘Polytoma’ oviformeTB03
               `--+--C. applanataTB03
                       |--P. uvellaTB03
                       `--+--P. mirumTB03
                          `--P. obtusumTB03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A90] Archibald, P. A. 1990. Soil algae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 69–96. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[BB02] Brugerolle, G., G. Bricheux, H. Philippe & G. Coffe. 2002. Collodictyon triciliatum and Diphylleia rotans (=Aulacomonas submarina) form a new family of flagellates (Collodictyonidae) with tubular mitochondrial cristae that is phylogenetically distinct from other flagellate groups. Protist 153: 59–70.

[C79] Curds, C. R. 1979. Group phenomena in the phylum Protozoa. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 29–37. Academic Press: London.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[EB93] Edwards, D., J. G. Baldauf, P. R. Brown, K. J. Dorning, M. Feist, L. T. Gallagher, N. Grambast-Fessard, M. B. Hart, A. J. Powell & R. Riding. 1993. ‘Algae’. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 15–40. Chapman & Hall: London.

[EDF04] Ekelund, F., N. Daugbjerg & L. Fredslund. 2004. Phylogeny of Heteromita, Cercomonas and Thaumatomonas based on SSU rDNA sequences, including the description of Neocercomonas jutlandica sp. nov., gen. nov. European Journal of Protistology 40: 119–135.

[FEF04] Finlay, B. J., G. F. Esteban & T. Fenchel. 2004. Protist diversity is different? Protist 155: 15–22.

[GPN97] Gatenby, C. M., B. C. Parker & R. J. Neves. 1997. Growth and survival of juvenile rainbow mussels, Villosa iris (Lea, 1829) (Bivalvia: Unionidae), reared on algal diets and sediment. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 57–66.

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[GLB04] Gray, M. W., B. F. Lang & G. Burger. 2004. Mitochondria of protists. Annual Review of Genetics 38: 477–524.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L-BC03] López-Bautista, J. M., & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2099–2106.

[M70] Meel, L. van. 1970. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. VI.—Les méandres de la Durme à Hamme (Province de Flandre Orientale). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (13): 1–56.

[MS95] Melkonian, M., & B. Surek. 1995. Phylogeny of the Chlorophyta: congruence between ultrastructural and molecular evidence. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 120 (2): 191–208.

[NM03] Nozaki, H., M. Matsuzaki, M. Takahara, O. Misumi, H. Kuroiwa, M. Hasegawa, T. Shin-i, Y. Kohara, N. Ogasawara & T. Kuroiwa. 2003. The phylogenetic position of red algae revealed by multiple nuclear genes from mitochondria-containing eukaryotes and an alternative hypothesis on the origin of plastids. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 485–497.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RA05] Rath, J., & S. P. Adhikary. 2005. A check list of algae from Chilika Lake, Orissa. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 101–114.

[R87] Rizzo, P. J. 1987. Biochemistry of the dinoflagellate nucleus. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 143–173. Blackwell Scientific.

[SM03] Saldarriaga, J. F., M. L. McEwan, N. M. Fast, F. J. R. Taylor & P. J. Keeling. 2003. Multiple protein phylogenies show that Oxyrrhis marina and Perkinsus marinus are early branches of the dinoflagellate lineage. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 355–365.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[SR02] Simpson, A. G. B., A. J. Roger, J. D. Silberman, D. D. Leipe, V. P. Edgcomb, L. S. Jermiin, D. J. Patterson & M. L. Sogin. 2002. Evolutionary history of “early-diverging” eukaryotes: the excavate taxon Carpediemonas is a close relative of Giardia. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (10): 1782–1791.

[SG99] Sluiman, H. J., & C. Guihal. 1999. Phylogenetic position of Chaetosphaeridium (Chlorophyta), a basal lineage in the Charophyceae inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Journal of Phycology 35: 395–402.

[SX97] Song B. & Xie P. 1997. Preliminary studies on the community structure of the planktonic protozoa from the outlet of Lake Dongting. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica 21 (Suppl.): 60–68.

[TB03] Tartar, A., D. G. Boucias, J. J. Becnel & B. J. Adams. 2003. Comparison of plastid 16S rRNA (rrn16) genes from Helicosporidium spp.: evidence supporting the reclassification of Helicosporidia as green algae (Chlorophyta). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1719–1723.

[YB03] Young, E. B., & J. Beardall. 2003. Photosynthetic function in Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyta) during a nitrogen starvation and recovery cycle. Journal of Phycology 39: 897–905.

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