Liomera rubra, from here.

Belongs within: Heterotremata.

The Xanthidae are a family of marine crabs found from the intertidal zone to moderately deep water. They are often brightly coloured and highly toxic, sometimes even to the touch.

Characters (from Davie 2002): Carapace hexagonal, transversely hexagonal to transversely oval, sometimes subcircular; dorsal regions (areolation) generally, but not always, well defined; surface usually ridged or granular. Frontal margin more or less bilobed. Anterolateral margins generally with two to six teeth, spines or lobes, sometimes weakly differentiated. Epistome with ridges that define efferent branchial canals absent or confined to the posterior part of the branchial cavity, not continuing on to meet the anterior buccal frame. Chelipeds with fingers pointed or spoon-tipped. Walking legs with or without at dactylo-propodal articulation formed by a rounded prolongation of propodal lateral margin sliding against and beneath a projecting button situated proximally on lateral margin of dactylus. Thoracic sternum relatively narrow. Male abdomen consisting of five movable segments with segments 3-5 fused (sutures may sometimes be more or less evident). Male genital openings coxal; female openings sternal. Male first gonopod slender, curved or sinuous, relatively simple apically, lacking complex lobes or folds; typically with long setae distally or subdistally; second gonopod short, less than 0.25× length of first.

    |--Banareia [Zalasiinae]TSH09
    |--Lybia [Polydectinae]TSH09
    |    `--L. tessellata (Latreille in Milbert 1812)TSH09
    |--Cymo [Cymoinae]TSH09
    |    |--C. andreossyi (Audouin 1826)TSH09
    |    |--C. deplanatus Milne Edwards 1873TSH09
    |    |--C. melanodactylus Dana 1852TSH09
    |    `--C. quadrilobatus Miers 1884TSH09
    |--Palapedia [Kraussiinae]TSH09
    |    |--P. integra (De Haan 1835)TSH09
    |    |--P. marquesa (Serène 1972)TSH09
    |    |--P. pelsartensis (Serène 1972)MG-H11
    |    `--P. valentini Ng 2003MG-H11
    |--Etisus Milne Edwards 1834GT01 [EtisinaeTSH09]
    |    |--*E. dentatus (Herbst 1785) [=Cancer dentatus]GT01
    |    |--E. anaglyptus (Milne Edwards 1834)J90
    |    |--E. demani Odhner 1925TSH09
    |    |--E. electra (Herbst 1801)TSH09
    |    `--E. utilus Jacquinot in Jacquinot & Lucas 1853TSH09
    |    |--Hypocolpus abbotti (Rathbun 1894)TSH09
    |    |--ParamedaeusTSH09
    |    `--EuxanthusTSH09
    |         |--E. exsculptus (Herbst 1790)TSH09
    |         `--E. huonii (Hombron & Jacquinot 1846)TSH09
    |--Liomera [Liomerinae]TSH09
    |    |--L. cinctimana (White 1847)TSH09 [=Carpilodes cinctimanusJ90]
    |    |--L. edwardsi Kossmann 1877TSH09
    |    |--L. hartmeyeri Odhner 1925 [=Carpilodes hartmeyeri]J90
    |    |--L. laevis (Milne Edwards 1873)TSH09
    |    |--L. monticulosa (Milne Edwards 1873)TSH09
    |    |--L. rubra (Milne Edwards 1865)TSH09 [=Carpilodes ruberJ90]
    |    |--L. rugata (Milne Edwards 1834)TSH09 [=Carpilodes rugatusJ90]
    |    |--L. stimpsoni (Milne Edwards 1865)TSH09
    |    `--L. tristis (Dana 1852)TSH09
    |    |--Atergatopsis globosa Balss 1935TSH09, J90
    |    |--Lophozozymus anaglypta (Heller 1861)TSH09
    |    |--Zozymodes cavipes (Dana 1852)TSH09 [=Xantho (Leptodius) cavipesJ90]
    |    |--Zosimus aeneus (Linnaeus 1758)TSH09
    |    |--AtergatisTSH09
    |    |    |--A. floridus (Linnaeus 1767)TSH09
    |    |    |--A. integerrimus (Lamarck 1801)WMJ09
    |    |    `--A. roseus (Rüppell 1830)KK03
    |    `--PlatypodiaTSH09
    |         |--P. eydouxi (Milne Edwards 1873)TSH09
    |         |--P. granulosa (Rüppell 1830)TSH09
    |         `--P. semigranosa (Heller 1861)TSH09
    |    |--TweedieiaTSH09
    |    |--PilodiusTSH09
    |    |    |--P. areolatus (Milne Edwards 1834)TSH09
    |    |    |--P. flavus Rathbun 1894TSH09
    |    |    `--P. pilumnoides (White 1848)TSH09
    |    |--ChlorodiellaMG-H11
    |    |    |--C. barbata (Borradaile 1900)TSH09
    |    |    |--C. cytherea (Dana 1852)TSH09
    |    |    |--C. laevissima (Dana 1852)TSH09
    |    |    `--C. nigra (Forskal 1775)J90
    |    `--CyclodiusTSH09
    |         |--C. granulatus (Targioni-Tozzetti 1877)TSH09
    |         |--C. granulosus (De Man 1888)TSH09
    |         |--C. nitidus (Dana 1852)TSH09
    |         |--C. obscurus (Hombron & Jacquinot 1846)TSH09
    |         `--C. ungulatus (Milne Edwards 1834)TSH09
    |    |--Gaillardiellus orientalis (Odhner 1925)TSH09
    |    |--Psaumis cavipes (Dana 1852)TSH09 [=Actaea cavipesJ90]
    |    |--PseudoliomeraTSH09
    |    |--ParactaeaTSH09
    |    |    |--P. rufopunctata (Milne Edwards 1834)MG-H11 [=Actaea rufopunctataJ90]
    |    |    `--P. sulcata (Stimpson 1860)PB06
    |    |--ActaeodesTSH09
    |    |    |--A. consobrinus (Milne Edwards 1873)TSH09
    |    |    |--A. hirsutissimus (Rüppell 1830)TSH09
    |    |    `--A. tomentosus (Milne Edwards 1834)TSH09
    |    `--ActaeaMG-H11
    |         |--A. calculosa (Milne Edwards 1834)MG-H11
    |         |--A. jacquelinae Guinot 1976J90
    |         |--A. michaelseni Odhner 1925J90
    |         |--A. peronii (Milne Edwards 1834)MG-H11
    |         |--A. polyacantha (Heller 1861)TSH09
    |         `--A. savignyi (Milne Edwards 1834)J90
         |--Lachnopodus subacutus (Stimpson 1858)TSH09
         |--Neoxanthias impressus (Latreille in Milbert 1812)TSH09
         |    |--X. elegans Stimpson 1858 [=Paraxanthias elegans]J90
         |    |--X. haswelliH15
         |    `--X. lamarcki (Milne Edwards 1834)TSH09
         |    |--P. notatus (Dana 1852)TSH09
         |    |--P. pachydactylus (Milne Edwards 1867)TSH09
         |    `--P. taylori [incl. Xantho spinotuberculata]B64
         |    |--L. eudorusB64
         |    |--L. exaratus (Milne Edwards 1834)TSH09
         |    |--L. nudipesB64
         |    `--L. sanguineus (Milne Edwards 1834)TSH09
         `--Xantho Leach 1814GT01
              |--X. danae Odhner 1925J90
              |--X. granulicarpus Forest 1953KK03
              |--X. pilipes Milne-Edwards 1867KK03
              |--X. poressa (Olivi 1792)KK03
              `--X. rivulosusR26

Xanthidae incertae sedis:
    |--E. abbreviatusHN-F08
    `--E. depressusC02
  Calvactaea tumida Ward 1933MG-H11
    |--D. splendida Laurie 1906J90
    `--D. wardi Garth & Ng 1985MG-H11
  Medaeus couchiMG-H11, PP64
    |--M. couchii (Couch 1851)KK03
    `--M. tuberculidens (Rathbun 1911)MG-H11
    `--Heterozius Milne Edwards 1867B64
         `--H. rotundifrons Milne Edwards 1867B64
  Neopanope sayiV77
    |--L. annulipesV77
    `--L. tenaxV77
  Myomenippe hartwickiV77
  Baptozius vinosusV77
  Euryozius sanguineusV77
  Pseudocarcinus giganteusV77, MD01
  Eurytium limosumV77, HN-F08
  Actaeopsis wiltshirei Carter 1898BWW93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B64] Bennett, E. W. 1964. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Crustacea Brachyura. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 153: 1–120.

[BWW93] Briggs, D. E. G., M. J. Weedon & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea excluding Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 321–342. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C02] Collette, B. B. 2002. Toadfishes. Order Batrachoididae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 261–264. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[GT01] Guinot, D., & M. Tavares. 2001. Une nouvelle famille de crabes du Crétacé, et la notion de Podotremata Guinot, 1977 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura). Zoosystema 23 (3): 507–546.

[H15] Harmer, S. F. 1915. The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition—Part I. Entoprocta, Ctenostomata and Cyclostomata. E. J. Brill: Leyden.

[HN-F08] Hirose, G. L., & M. L. Negreiros-Franzoso. 2008. Growth and juvenile development of Uca maracoani Latreille 1802–1803 in laboratory conditions (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 161–168.

[J90] Jones, D. S. 1990. Annotated checklist of marine decapod Crustacea from Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 169–208. Western Australian Museum.

[KK03] Kocataş, A., & T. Katağan. 2003. The decapod crustacean fauna of the Turkish seas. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 63–74.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PB06] Poupin, J., & J. M. Bouchard. 2006. The eastern Pacific species of the genus Calcinus Dana, 1851, with description of a new species from Clipperton Island (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae). Zoosystema 28 (2): 465–486.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[TSH09] Titelius, M. A., A. Sampey & C. G. Hass. 2009. Crustaceans of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 145–176.

[V77] Vermeij, G. J. 1977. Patterns in crab claw size: the geography of crushing. Systematic Zoology 26 (2): 138–151.

[WMJ09] Wells, F. E., M. Mulligan & D. S. Jones. 2009. Prevention of introduction of species brought into Geraldton Harbour, Western Australia, by the dredge Leonardo da Vinci. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (2): 153–158.

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