Xanthophyceae

Filaments and stalked cells of Tribonema minus, copyright D. J. Patterson & Craig Bailey.

Belongs within: Chrysista.

The Xanthophyceae, yellow-green algae, are a group of algae found primarily in fresh water with smaller numbers of species in soil or marine habitats. The group includes both unicellular and filamentous forms.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Predominately coccoid or filamentous, rarely amoeboid, ciliated or capsoid; swimming cells with two cilia, one anteriorly directed and bearing tripartite tubular hairs and one posteriorly directed and lacking tripartite hairs; four microtubular kinetosomal roots and one large striated kinetosomal root or rhizoplast; ciliary transitional helix with six apparently double gyres located above the major transitional plate; no paraciliary rod; cell walls typical, probably of cellulose and either entire or H-shaped bisectional walls; chloroplast with girdle lamella; outer chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum membrane with direct membrane connection to outer nuclear envelope membrane; plastid DNA with ring-type genophore; eyespots present or absent; plastid pigments include chlorophylls a and c1,2, violaxanthin, heteroxanthin, and vaucherioxanthin.

<==Xanthophyceae [Heterochlorida, Heterokontae, Heteromonadea, Siphonomorpha, Vaucheriadeae, Xanthophyta]
    |  i. s.: Ostreobium [Phyllosiphonaceae]S57
    |           |--O. quekettii Bornet & Flahault 1889S57
    |           `--O. reineckei Bornet 1896L27
    |         ChlorobotrydaceaeA90
    |           |--ChlorellidiumA90
    |           |--ChlorobotrysA90
    |           `--GloeobotrysA90
    |         Palaeovaucheria clavata Hermann 1981EB93
    |--Vaucheriaceae [Vaucheriales]C-SC06
    |    |--Dichotomosiphon tuberosusSG05
    |    `--VaucheriaC-SC06
    |         |--V. antiquaEB93
    |         |--V. aversaG64
    |         |--V. bursataC-SC06
    |         |--V. clavataG64
    |         |--V. conroyi Habeeb 1984C91
    |         |--V. dichotomaG64
    |         |--V. dillwynii [incl. Conferva frigida]G64
    |         |--V. geminataG64
    |         |--V. hamataG64
    |         |--V. litoria Bang & Agardh in Agardh 1821S57
    |         |--V. ornithocephalaG64
    |         |--V. ovoideaG64
    |         |--V. polyspermaG64
    |         |--V. racemosaG64
    |         |--V. repensG64
    |         |--V. sessilisSG05
    |         |--V. submarinaG64
    |         `--V. terrestrisG64
    `--Tribonematales [Botrydiales, Heterococcales, Heterotrichales, Mischococcales]A90
         |  i. s.: CharaciopsisAS12
         |         ChloromesonAS12
         |         OphiocytiumAS12
         |           |--O. arbusculaMS98
         |           |--O. capitatumM70
         |           |    |--O. c. var. capitatumM70
         |           |    `--O. c. var. longispinumM70
         |           `--O. majusMS98
         |         SphaerosorusAS12
         |         MonadusAB19
         |--HeterococcusC-SC06 [HeterodendraceaeA90]
         |    `--H. caespitosusC-SC06
         `--+--Mischococcus sphaerocephalusKI02, C-SC06
            `--+--Pseudopleurochloris antarcticaKI02, C-SC06
               `--+--PleurochloridaceaeA90
                  |    |--Pleurochloris meiringensisC-SC06
                  |    |--ChloroclosterA90
                  |    |--EllipsoidionA90
                  |    |--NephrodiellaA90
                  |    `--BotrydiopsisA90
                  |         |--B. alpinaC-S18
                  |         `--B. intercedensC-SC06
                  `--+--Heterothrix debilisC-SC06
                     `--+--Botrydium Wallr. 1815C-SC06, KC01 [Botrydiaceae]
                        |    |--B. granulatumG64
                        |    `--B. stoloniferumC-SC06
                        `--+--Xanthonema debileKI02
                           `--+--BumilleriopsisKI02 [ChlorotheciaceaeA90]
                              |    `--B. filiformisKI02
                              `--Tribonemataceae [Tribonemaceae]A90
                                   |--BumilleriaA90
                                   |--HeterotrichellaA90
                                   `--TribonemaC-SC06
                                        |--T. aequaleKI02
                                        |--T. bombycinumSG05
                                        |--T. gayanumG00
                                        |--T. intermixtumC-SC06
                                        `--T. minusHM88

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[A90] Archibald, P. A. 1990. Soil algae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 69–96. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C-S18] Cavalier-Smith, T. 2018. Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences. Protoplasma 255: 297–357.

[C-SC06] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2006. Phylogeny and megasystematics of phagotrophic heterokonts (kingdom Chromista). Journal of Molecular Evolution 62: 388–420.

[C91] Conroy, J. C. 1991. Acarology—a modern science. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 5–16. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[EB93] Edwards, D., J. G. Baldauf, P. R. Brown, K. J. Dorning, M. Feist, L. T. Gallagher, N. Grambast-Fessard, M. B. Hart, A. J. Powell & R. Riding. 1993. ‘Algae’. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 15–40. Chapman & Hall: London.

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[G00] Gromov, B. V. 2000. Algal parasites of the genera Aphelidium, Amoeboaphelidium, and Pseudaphelidium from Cienkovski’s “Monadinea” group as representatives of a new class. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 79 (5): 517–525 (translated: Entomological Review 80 (Suppl. 1): S26–S34).

[HM88] Hoshaw, R. W., & R. M. McCourt. 1988. The Zygnemataceae (Chlorophyta): a twenty-year update of research. Phycologia 27 (4): 511–548.

[KI02] Kawachi, M., I. Inouye, D. Honda, C. J. O’Kelly, J. C. Bailey, R. R. Bidigare & R. A. Andersen. 2002. The Pinguiophyceae classis nova, a new class of photosynthetic stramenopiles whose members produce large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. Phycological Research 50: 31–47.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[MS98] Margulis, L., & K. V. Schwartz. 1998. Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth 3rd ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[M70] Meel, L. van. 1970. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. VI.—Les méandres de la Durme à Hamme (Province de Flandre Orientale). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (13): 1–56.

[SG05] Sau, A., & R. K. Gupta. 2005. Algal flora of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 63–86.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

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