Xenophora pallidula, copyright C. R. McClain.

Belongs within: Stromboidea.

The Xenophoridae, carrier shells, are a group of more or less conical shells that commonly cement foreign bodies such as stones or discarded shells to their own shell to provide defence and/or camouflage. They are sediment feeders, consuming forams and other detritus. The shell has a ventrally porcellanous peripheral flange in species of Onustus but a non-porcellanous flange in Xenophora.

Characters (from Wikipedia): Shells small to rather large (diameter of base without attachments 19–160 mm; height of shell 21–100 mm), depressed to conical, with narrow to wide, simple to spinose peripheral edge or flange separating spire from base. Aperture large, base broad, rather flattened, often umbilicate. Periostracum very thin or wanting. Protoconch depressed-conical, multispiral (rarely paucispiral). Teleoconch usually with foreign objects attached in spiral series to peripheral flange and, sometimes, remainder of dorsum, at least on early whorls. Operculum horny, yellowish to brown, nucleus lateral, with simple growth lamellae, sometimes with conspicuous radial striae or hollow radial ribs.

    |--Onustus Swainson 1840BR05 [=Tugurium Fischer 1879W93; incl. Trochotugurium Sacco 1896W93; Onustidae]
    |    |--*O. indicus (Gmelin 1971)BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--O. caribaeus (Petit 1856)S11 [=Tugurium caribaeumMP65, Xenophora caribaeaMP65]
    |    |--O. exutus (Reeve 1842)W93 [=Phorus exutusH09, Xenophora exutaW93]
    |    |--‘Tugurium’ longleyiMP65
    |    `--O. prognatus Finlay 1926F27
    `--Xenophora Fischer von Waldheim 1807BR17 [=Xenophorus (l. c.)W93]
         |  i. s.: X. grasi Roman & Mazeran 1920TTE93
         |         X. japonica (Kuroda & Habe 1971)K07
         |         X. lindae Petuch & Drolshagen 2009P12
         |         X. mediterraneaPP64
         |         X. neozelanica Suter 1908P61 [=Onustus neozelanicusF27]
         |         X. rhytida Cossmann 1899 [=Peasiella rhytida]R89
         |         X. simpsoni Stanton 1893TTE93
         |         X. tatei Harris 1897 [=X. (Tugurium) tatei]DK08
         |         X. tulearensis Stewart & Kosuge 1993BC01
         |--X. (Xenophora) [incl. Endoptygma Gabb 1877, Phorus Montfort 1810]W93
         |    |--X. (X.) conchyliophora (Born 1780)S11 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--‘Trochus’ agglutinans Lamarck 1804 [=*Phorus agglutinans]BR17
         |    |--X. (X.) cerea (Reeve 1845)W93 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--‘Phorus’ corrugatusR42
         |    |--X. (X.) flindersi (Cotton & Godfrey 1938) [incl. X. tatei Verco 1909 non Harris 1897]W93
         |    |    |--X. f. flindersiW93
         |    |    `--X. f. ludbrookae Ponder 1983W93
         |    |--X. (X.) mekranensisW93
         |    |    |--X. m. mekranensisW93
         |    |    `--X. m. konoi Habe 1953 [incl. X. caperta Schepman 1909 non Philippi 1851]W93
         |    |--‘Phorus’ onustus [incl. Trochus lithophorus]R42
         |    |--X. (X.) pallidula (Reeve 1842)W93 [=Phorus pallidulusH09]
         |    |--X. (X.) peroniana (Iredale 1929)W93
         |    |    |--X. p. peronianaW93
         |    |    `--X. p. kondoi Ponder 1983W93
         |    |--X. (X.) solarioides (Reeve 1845)W93 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--*Endoptygma’ umbilicatumW93
         `--X. (Stellaria Schmidt in Moller 1832)W93
              |--X. (*S.) solarisW93 [=Trochus solarisW93, Phorus solarisR42]
              |--X. (S.) chinensis (Philippi 1841)W93 [incl. Phorus calculiferus Reeve 1842R42, W93]
              `--X. (S.) gigantea Schepman 1909W93

*Onustus indicus (Gmelin 1971)BR17 [=Trochus indicusBR17, Phorus indicusR42, *Tugurium indicumW93, Xenophora (*Onustus) indicaW93; incl. X. helvacea Philippi 1852H09, W93, X. wagneri Philippi 1855W93]

Xenophora (Xenophora) cerea (Reeve 1845)W93 [=Phorus cereus H09; incl. X. corrugata Philippi 1855W93, X. trochiformis Bergh 1904W93, X. torrida Kuroda & Ito 1961W93]

Xenophora (Xenophora) conchyliophora (Born 1780)S11 [=Trochus conchyliophorusBR17, *X. laevigata Fischer von Waldheim 1807BR17]

Xenophora (Xenophora) solarioides (Reeve 1845)W93 [=Phorus solarioidesH09; incl. X. australis Souverbie & Montrouzier 1870W93, X. javanicus Gray 1857W93]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[K07] Kamenev, G. M. 2007. The taxonomic position of Bentharca xenophoricola (Kuroda, 1929) and Bentharca rubrotincta Kuroda & Habe in Habe, 1958 (Bivalvia: Arcidae). Malacologia 49 (2): 351–365.

[MP65] Merrill, A. S., & R. E. Petit. 1965. Mollusks new to South Carolina. Nautilus 79 (2): 58–66.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[R42] Reeve, L. 1842. On the genus Phorus, a group of agglutinating mollusks of the family Turbinacea. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 160–163.

[R89] Reid, D. G. 1989. Systematic revision of the Recent species of Peasiella Nevill, 1885 (Gastropoda: Littorinidae), with notes on the fossil species. Nautilus 103 (2): 43–69.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

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