Xenophyophorea

Aschemonella catenata, from Brady (1884).

Belongs within: Foraminifera.
Contains: Stannophyllum, Psamminidae.

The Xenophyophorea are a group of often large, deep-water protists (now believed to be a subgroup of the Foraminifera) that construct sessile tests of agglutinated particles.

Characters (from Tendal 1972): Plasmodium (granellare) multinucleate, enclosed by branched tube system composed of a transparent, cement-like organic substance, containing numerous barite crystals (granellae). Pseudopodia extending through free ends of tubes. Faecal pellets (stercomes) retained outside plasma and organic tube system as darks strings or masses (stercomare). Granellare surrounded by test consisting of stercomare and foreign matter (xenophyae) in varying proportions.

<==Xenophyophorea (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Cerelpsamma Laubenfels 1936T72
    |           `--*C. argillaceum (Haeckel 1889) [=Holopsamma argillaceum]T72
    |--Stannomidae [Neusinidae, Neusininae, Stannomida]T72
    |    |--StannophyllumT72
    |    `--Stannoma Haeckel 1889 [incl. Stannoplegma Haeckel 1889]T72
    |         |--*S. dendroides Haeckel 1889T72
    |         `--S. coralloides Haeckel 1889 [=*Stannoplegma coralloides]LT64b
    `--PsamminidaG96
         |--PsamminidaeG96
         |--Cerelasma Haeckel 1889 [Cerelasmidae]T72
         |    |--*C. gyrosphaera Haeckel 1889T72
         |    |--C. lamellosa Haeckel 1889T72
         |    `--C. massa Tendal 1972T72
         |--SyringamminidaeG96
         |    |--Syringammina Brady 1883 [=Arsyringammum Rhumbler 1913; Syringammininae]T72
         |    |    |--*S. fragilissima Brady 1883 [=*Arsyringammum fragilissimum]LT64a
         |    |    |--S. corbiculaPH03
         |    |    |--S. minuta Pearcy 1914RTG93
         |    |    |--S. reticulata Gooday 1996G96
         |    |    `--S. tasmanensis Lewis 1966T72
         |    `--Aschemonellinae [Araschemonellinia, Aschemonellidae]LT64a
         |         |--Kalamopsis de Folin 1883 [=Arkalamopsum Rhumbler 1913]LT64a
         |         |    `--*K. vaillanti de Folin 1883 [=*Arkalamopsum vaillanti]LT64a
         |         `--Aschemonella Brady 1879G96 [=Araschemonellum Rhumbler 1913LT64a]
         |              |--*A. scabra Brady 1879 [=Araschemonellum scabrum]LT64a
         |              |--A. bastillensisL94
         |              |--A. catenata (Norman 1876) [=Astrorhiza catenata]LT64a
         |              |--A. longicaudataL94
         |              |--A. louisianaL94
         |              `--A. ramuliformis Brady 1884G96
         `--PsammettidaeG96
              |--Maudammina Tendal 1972T72
              |    `--*M. arenaria Tendal 1972T72
              |--Homogammina Gooday & Tendal 1988G96
              |    |--*H. lamina Gooday & Tendal 1988GT88
              |    |--H. crassa Gooday 1991G91
              |    `--H. maculosa Gooday & Tendal 1988G96
              `--Psammetta Schulze 1906T72
                   |--*P. globosa Schulze 1906T72, GT88
                   |--P. arenocentrum Tendal 1972T72
                   |--P. erythrocytomorpha Schulze 1907T72
                   `--P. ovale Tendal 1972T72

Xenophyophorea [Arxenophyria, Domatocoela, Psamminidea, Psammininae, Xenophiophorae, Xenophyophora, Xenophyophoria, Xenophyophorida, Xenophyophoridae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[G91] Gooday, A. J. 1991. Xenophyophores (Protista, Rhizopoda) in box-core samples from the abyssal northeast Atlantic Ocean (BIOTRANS area): their taxonomy, morphology, and ecology. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 21 (3): 197–212.

[G96] Gooday, A. J. 1996. Xenophyophores (Protista), including two new species, from two abyssal sites in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 26 (3): 193–208.

[GT88] Gooday, A. J., & O. S. Tendal. 1988. New xenophyophores (Protista) from the bathyal and abyssal north-east Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Natural History 22: 413–434.

[L94] Levin, L. A. 1994. Paleoecology and ecology of xenophyophores. Palaios 9: 32–41.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[PH03] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann, J. Fahrni & S. L. Richardson. 2003. Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 50: 483–487.

[RTG93] Riemann, F., O. S. Tendal & F. X. Gingele. 1993. Reticulammina antarctica nov. spec. (Xenophyophora, Protista) from the Weddell Sea, and aspects of the nutrition of xenophyophores. Polar Biology 13: 543–547.

[T72] Tendal, O. S. 1972. A monograph of the Xenophyophoria (Rhizopodea, Protozoa). Galathea Report 12: 7–99.

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