Violet carpenter bee Xylocopa violacea, copyright Antony Grossy.

Belongs within: Apidae.
Contains: Ceratinini, Allodapini, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma).

The Xylocopinae, carpenter bees, are a group of bees that construct nests as burrows in dead wood and other dead plant tissue (Houston 2018).

Characters (from Houston 2018): Long-tongued bees with scopa, if present, located on hind tibia; labrum typically small and broader than long; basitibial plate very weakly developed or absent or represented by elevation about halfway down tibia; pygidial plate absent or represented by median spine; prepygidial fimbria absent; hind basitarsi elongated, scarcely flattened, lacking apical process and penicillus.

<==Xylocopinae [Ceratinidae, Xylocopae, Xylocopidae]CSD10
    |  i. s.: MesotrichiaA-B91
    |           |--M. caffraA-B91
    |           `--M. ogasawarensis (Matsumura 1912)I92
    |         CopoxylaCSD10
    |--+--Manuelia [Manueliini]CSD10
    |  |    `--M. gayatina (Spinola 1851)CSD10
    |  `--+--CeratininiCSD10
    |     `--+--AllodapiniCSD10
    |        `--Boreallodape Engel 2001E01 [BoreallodapiniCSD10]
    |             |--*B. baltica Engel 2001E01
    |             |--B. mollyae Engel 2001E01
    |             `--B. striebichi Engel 2001E01
    `--Xylocopa Latreille 1802M65 [=XilocopaM65; incl. ProxylocopaE01; XylocopiniCSD10]
         |  i. s.: X. aeneipennisFS90
         |         X. albinotus Matsumura 1926I92
         |         X. amamensis Sonan 1934I92
         |         X. amedaeiL49
         |         X. australensis Kirby 1819 [=Lestis australensis]M65
         |         X. brasilianorum [=Apis brasilianorum]L02
         |         X. carmataR13
         |         X. circumvolansR35
         |         X. cirtana Lucas 1847E12
         |         X. cyanescens [incl. X. minuta, X. taurica]L49
         |         X. darwiniPP72
         |         X. fenestrataKK96
         |         X. flavifrons Matsumura 1912I92
         |         X. flavorufaR13
         |         X. gabrielaeCSD10
         |         ‘Lestis’ gibbonsi Cockerell 1929M65
         |         X. morio [=Apis morio]L02
         |         X. rufescensRD77
         |         X. simillima Smith 1854M65
         |         X. splendidulaO09
         |         X. tranquebaricaH18
         |         ‘Lestis’ violascens Cockerell 1905 [=L. violacea (l. c.) non Apis violacea Linnaeus 1758]M65
         |         X. (Cyaneoderes) caeruleaM65
         |         X. (Koptortosoma)M65
         |         X. (Lestis Lepeletier & Serville 1828)H18, M65
         |           |--X. (*L.) bombylans (Fabricius 1779)H18, M65 [=Apis bombylansM65, Lestis bombiliformis (l. c.)M65]
         |           `--X. (L.) aerata (Smith 1851)H18, M65 [=Lestis aeratusM65]
         |         X. (Platynopoda)M65
         |           |--X. (P.) latipesM65 [=Coptorthosoma latipesR13]
         |           `--X. (P.) perforator Smith 1862M65
         |--+--+--*X. (Xylocopa) violacea (Linnaeus 1758)M65, CSD10 [=Apis violaceaM65; incl. X. femorataL49]
         |  |  `--X. iris (Christ 1791)CSD10
         |  `--+--X. californicaCSD10
         |     |    |--X. c. californicaCSD10
         |     |    `--X. c. arizonensis Cresson 1879CSD10
         |     `--X. virginica (Linnaeus 1771)CSD10
         |          |--X. v. virginicaK62
         |          `--X. v. krombeiniK62
         `--+--X. pubescens Spinola 1838CSD10
            `--+--X. tabaniformis Smith 1854CSD10
               `--+--X. fimbriata Fabricius 1804CSD10
                  `--X. muscaria (Fabricius 1775)CSD10 [=Apis muscariaM65, Lestis muscariaM65]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[CSD10] Cardinal, S., J. Straka & B. N. Danforth. 2010. Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16207–16211.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[H18] Houston, T. 2018. A Guide to Native Bees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K62] Krombein, K. V. 1962. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XVI. Biological notes on Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker, a parasitic mite of the megachilid bee, Osmia (Osmia) lignaria Say (Acarina: Chaetodactylidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 237–250.

[KK96] Kumar, N. R., & R. Kumar. 1996. Mites in plant pollinator ecosystem: influence on conserving biodiversity. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 133–136. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d’observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[O09] OConnor, B. M. 2009. Cohort Astigmatina. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 565–657. Texas Tech University Press.

[PP72] Parkin, P., D. T. Parkin, A. W. Ewing & H. A. Ford. 1972. A report on the arthropods collected by the Edinburgh University Galapagos Islands expedition, 1968. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 100–107.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

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