Xystodesmoidea

Yellow flat-backed millipede
Cherokia georgiana, copyright Sheryl Pollock.

Belongs within: Polydesmida.

The Xystodesmoidea are a group of millipedes with usually prominent paraterga and bodies incapable of rolling into a ball.

Characters (from Enghoff et al. 2015): Length ca. 8 to more than 80 mm, exceptionally smaller. Body not capable of volvation, broad and robust, width/length ratio usually <18%, usually parallel-sided on rings 3–16. Antennae rarely with more than four apical cones, not arranged in dyads. Paraterga mostly prominent, lateral calluses normally evident; metaterga usually without setae. Gonopod coxa with cannula; telopodite with neither acccssory seminal chamber nor hairy pulvillus.

<==Xystodesmoidea H90
|–Eurymerodesmidae H90
|    |–Eurymerodesmus H90
|    `–Paresmus H90
`–Xystodesmidae [Eurydesmidae, Fontariidae] H90
|  i. s.: Xystocheir H90
|         Amplocheir H90
|         Paimokia H90
|         Anombrocheir H90
|         Wamokia H90
|         Motyxia H90
|         Harpaphe H90
|         Hybaphe H90
|         Isaphe H90
|         Tubaphe H90
|         Chonaphe H90
|         Montaphe H90
|         Metaxycheir H90
|         Orophe H90
|         Stenodesmus H90
|         Gyalostethus H90
|         Caralinda H90
|         Pachydesmus H90
|         Dicellarius H90
|         Nannaria H90
|         Oenomoea H90
|         Apheloria H90
|         Rudiloria H90
|         Dixioria H90
|         Sigmoria aberrans H90, I92
|         Cleptoria H90
|         Brachoria H90
|         Dynoria H90
|         Lyrranea H90
|         Deltotaria H90
|         Stelgipus H90
|         Cheiropus H90
|         Croatania H90
|         Semionellus H90
`–Rhysodesmini H62
|–Rhysodesmus Cook 1895 H62
|    `–R. violaceus (Brölemann 1900) [=Fontaria violacea] K54
|–Erdelyia Hoffman 1962 H62
|    `–*E. saucra Hoffman 1962 H62
|–Cruzodesmus Chamberlin 1943 H62
|–Acentronus Chamberlin 1943 H62
|–Boraria Chamberlin 1943 H62
|–Howellaria Hoffman 1950 H62
|–Cherokia Chamberlin 1949 H62
|    `–C. georgiana MG06
`–Pleuroloma Rafinesque 1820 H62

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Enghoff, H., S. Golovatch, M. Short, P. Stoev & T. Wesener. 2015. Diplopoda—taxonomic overview. In: Minelli, A. (ed.) Treatise on Zoology—Anatomy, Taxonomy, Biology. The Myriapoda vol. 2 pp. 363–454. Brill: Leiden.

[H62] Hoffman, R. L. 1962. A new genus and species in the diplopod family Xystodesmidae (Polydesmida). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 181–188.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5–6): 293–349.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

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