Zanthoxyleae

 Japanese pepper Zanthoxylum piperitum, photographed by Karl Gercens.

Belongs within: Rutaceae.
Contains: Boronieae.

The name ‘Zanthoxyleae’ is here being applied to a clade corresponding to the ‘Euodia alliance’ of Kubitzki et al (2011), as the Zanthoxyleae as previously recognised are paraphyletic with regard to other tribes within the Rutaceae. Members of the Euodia alliance are found mostly in the Old World, with only the genus Zanthoxylum present in the New World. Zanthoxylum is pantropical; the fruit of some species of this genus such as Z. piperitum are used to make Sichuan pepper. Species of Zanthoxylum are distinguised by flowers with a 1- to 5-loculed gynoecium, producing fruit of one to five distinct or basally connate follicles.

The Diosmeae are a southern African clade with connected ovarioles and exalbuminous seeds. Melicope is a genus of trees and shrubs found in tropical Asia and Australasia with 1- or 3-foliolate leaves and tetramerous flowers with minute sepals and inflexed apices to the petals (Allan 1961). Flindersia is an Australasian genus of trees bearing opposite leaves and fruits as five-valved capsules containing winged seeds. The Toddaliinae have petals that are imbricate in the bud, and carpels remain united until maturity to form a two- to seven-celled fruit. The white sapote Casimiroa edulis is cultivated for its edible fruit.

Characters (from Kubitzki et al. 2011): Mostly rainforest trees or shrubs; flowers mostly (5-)4-merous, diplo-(haplo-)stemonous; ovarioles distinct or basally connate and stylodia joined in a common style, or gynoecium syncarpous; ovules 2, 1, or rarely more than 2; fruits dehiscing or drupaceous; dorsilateral endocarp in dehiscent fruits usually discharged with seed; ventral endocarp sometimes well developed; seeds with or rarely without sclerotesta, sometimes with sarcotesta, albuminous or exalbuminous.

<==Zanthoxyleae [Euodiinae, Toddalieae, Toddalioideae]
|--ZanthoxylumMS06
| |--Z. acanthopodiumDD73
| |--Z. ailanthoidesB00 [=Zanthoxilon ailanthoidesLO98]
| |--Z. armatum [incl. Z. alatum]DD73
| |--Z. brachyachanthumB00
| |--Z. clava-herculisR56
| |--Z. fagaraA02
| |--Z. flavumA02
| |--Z. haitienseJ87
| |--Z. martinicenseSWK87
| |--Z. monophyllumMS06
| |--Z. nitidumB00
| |--Z. ovalifoliumB00
| |--Z. parviflorumLK14
| |--Z. piperitumAO03
| |--Z. tetraphyllumJ87
| `--Z. veneficumS91
`--+--+--DiosmeaeMS06
| | |--Calodendrum [Calodendrinae]MS06
| | | `--C. capensisMS06
| | `--+--Adenandra [Diosminae]MS06
| | | |--A. dumosaT-W89
| | | `--A. unifloraMS06
| | `--Phellodendron [Phellodendrinae]MS06
| | |--P. amurenseMS06 [incl. Evodia glaucaLO98]
| | `--P. japonicumW17
| `--+--+--Pilocarpus [Cusparieae, Pilocarpinae]MS06
| | | `--P. pennatifoliusMS06
| | `--Choisya [Choisyinae]MS06
| | |--C. mollisMS06
| | `--C. ternataB00
| `--ToddaliinaeMS06
| | i. s.: ToddaliaJD05
| | |--T. aculeataK73
| | `--T. hofmanniiJD05
| |--Casimiroa edulisMS06
| `--+--Dictamnus [Dictamninae]MS06
| | `--D. albusH91
| `--SkimmiaMS06
| |--S. anquetiliaMS06
| `--S. laureolaJ73
`--+--+--BoronieaeMS06
| `--+--Sarcomelicope simplicifoliaMS06
| `--Melicope Forster & Forster 1776MS06, A61
| |--M. bonwickiiB00
| |--M. elleryanaBH07
| |--M. micrococcaB14
| |--M. parvula Buchanan 1888 (n. d.)A61
| |--M. rubraB00
| |--M. simplex Cunn. 1839 [incl. Astorganthus huegelii Endl 1843]A61
| |--M. ternata Forster & Forster 1776 (see below for synonymy)A61
| `--M. vitifloraB00
`--+--Lunasia [Lunasiinae]MS06
| `--L. amaraMS06
`--FlindersiaMS06
|--F. australisMS06
|--F. bennettiiB00
|--F. bourjotianaB00
|--F. brayleanaZ94
|--F. collinaB00
|--F. ifflaianaB00
|--F. laevicarpaB00
|--F. maculosaB00
|--F. oppositifolia [=Hypsophila oppositifolia Muell. 1892]J84
|--F. pimentelianaB00
`--F. schottianaB00

Melicope ternata Forster & Forster 1776 [incl. M. ternata var. grandis Cheeseman 1887, Entoganum laevigatum Gaertn. 1788, M. mantelli Buchanan 1871, M. ternata var. mantelli (Buchanan) Kirk 1889]A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[A02] Anderson, R. S. 2002. Curculionidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 722–815. CRC Press.

[AO03] Aoki, T., K. O’Donnell, Y. Homma & A. R. Lattanzi. 2003. Sudden-death syndrome of soybean is caused by two morphologically and phylogenetically distinct species within the Fusarium solani species complex—F. virguliforme in North America and F. tucumaniae in South America. Mycologia 95 (4): 660–684.

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[BH07] Brock, P. D., & J. W. Hasenpusch. 2007. Studies on the Australian stick insects (Phasmida), including a checklist of species and bibliography. Zootaxa 1570: 1–81.

[DD73] Deb, D. B., & R. M. Dutta. 1973. Contribution to the flora of Tirap Frontier Division. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 547–573.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J73] Jamwal, P. S. 1973. Collection of deer musk in Nepal. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 647–649.

[J84] Jessup, L. W. 1984. Celastraceae. In: George, A. S. (eds) Flora of Australia vol. 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales pp. 150–180. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185–273.

[K73] Krishnan, M. 1973. An ecological survey of the larger mammals of peninsular India (continued). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 469–501.

Kubitzki, K., J. A. Kallunki, M. Duretto & P. G. Wilson. 2011. Rutaceae. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants vol. 10. Flowering plants: Eudicots: Sapindales, Cucurbitales, Myrtaceae pp. 276–356. Springer.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MS06] Muellner, A. N., V. Savolainen, R. Samuel & M. W. Chase. 2006. The mahogany family “out-of-Africa”: divergence time estimation, global biogeographic patterns inferred from plastid rbcL DNA sequences, extant, and fossil distribution of diversity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 236–250.

[R56] Reed, C. F. 1956. Hyla cinerea in Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia, with notes on the taxonomic status of Hyla cinerea evittata. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (10): 328–332.

[S91] Sankowsky, G. 1991. New food plants for some Queensland butterflies. Australian Entomological Magazine 18 (1): 9–19.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[W17] Wagner, R. 1916–1917. Zur Morphologie der Boroniee Myrtopsis macrocarpa Schltr. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54: 269–278.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

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