Zingiberaceae

Dancing lady ginger Globba atrosanguinea, copyright Bernard Dupont.

Belongs within: Zingiberales.
Contains: Alpinieae, Zingibereae.

The Zingiberaceae, gingers, are a pantropical family of rhizomatous, aromatic herbs (Smith 1987).

Characters (from Smith 1987): Rhizomatous herbs with aromatic oil cells; rhizome usually fleshy, sympodial, each element terminating in a leafy or flowering shoot. Leaves few to many, entire, distichous; sheaths usually open on side opposite lamina. Inflorescence terminal on leafy shoot or borne directly on rhizome, occasionally surrounded by sterile bracts. Flowers bisexual, solitary in axils of bracts, or in cincinni, with or without bracteoles. Calyx tubular. Corolla tubular at base, tube often exceeding calyx; petals 3, subequal. Labellum (staminodal in origin) adnate at base of corolla tube, usually conspicuous. Lateral staminodes petaloid and conspicuous, or small, subulate teeth, or absent. Fertile stamen 1; anther sessile or with distinct filament; thecae parallel or divergent; connective dorsal, sometimes crested. Style linear, usually held between thecae; stigma usually expanded; ovary inferior, unilocular with parietal placentation or trilocular with axile placentation; ovules several per locule; epigynous glands (stylodes) present as erect outgrowths on top of ovary. Fruit a capsule or fleshy berry. Seeds arillate.

<==Zingiberaceae [Hedychieae]
    |  i. s.: ZingerberopsisGE05
    |         Spirematospermum wetzleri Heer 1925CBH93
    |         ZingiberopsisCBH93
    |         Phaeomeria solarisR44
    |         PhryniumT-W89
    |         BurbidgeaT-W89
    |         StrobidiaT-W89
    |--Siphonochilus [Siphonochileae, Siphonochiloideae]KPW02
    |    |--S. aethiopicusKPW02
    |    `--+--S. decorusKPW02
    |       `--S. kirkiiKPW02
    `--+--Tamijia [Tamijieae, Tamijioideae]KPW02
       |    `--T. flagellarisKPW02
       `--+--AlpinioideaeKPW02
          |    |--AlpinieaeKPW02
          |    `--+--Siliquamomum tonkinenseKPW02
          |       `--RiedelieaeKPW02
          |            |--Siamanthus siliquosusKPW02
          |            `--+--BurbigeaKPW02
          |               |    |--B. nitidaKPW02
          |               |    `--B. schizocheilaKPW02
          |               `--+--RiedeliaKPW02
          |                  `--PleuranthodiumKPW02
          |                       |--P. floribundumKPW02
          |                       `--P. schlechteriKPW02
          `--ZingiberoideaeKPW02
               |--+--ZingibereaeKPW02
               |  `--CaulokaempferiaKPW02
               |       |--C. coenobialisKPW02
               |       `--C. saxicolaKPW02
               `--GlobbeaeKPW02
                    |--+--Gagnepainia thorelianaKPW02
                    |  `--HemiorchisKPW02
                    |       |--H. burmanica Kurz 1873GS06
                    |       |--H. pantlingiiKPW02
                    |       `--H. rhodorrachis Schumann in Engler 1904GS06
                    `--+--MantisiaKPW02
                       |    |--M. spathulataKPW02
                       |    `--M. wengeriKPW02
                       `--Globba L. 1771KPW02, S87
                            |  i. s.: *G. marantina L. 1771S87
                            |         G. bulbiferaP03
                            |         G. winittiiDS04
                            |--G. macrocladaKPW02
                            `--+--G. atrosanguineaKPW02
                               `--G. curtisiiKPW02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[GS06] Ghosal, P. P., & S. C. Srivastava. 2006. Rediscovery of Hemiorchis rhodorrhachis K. Schum. (Zingiberaceae)—after gap of a century with extended distribution. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48: 197–200.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KPW02] Kress, W. J., L. M. Prince & K. J. Williams. 2002. The phylogeny and a new classification of the gingers (Zingiberaceae): evidence from molecular data. American Journal of Botany 89 (11): 1682–1696.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[R44] Rayment, T. 1944. A critical revision of species in the zonata group of Anthophora by new characters (part I). Dobutu Gaku—Iho 1 (1): 1–33.

[S87] Smith, R. M. 1987. Zingiberaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 19–34.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

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