Orchidantha longiflora, photographed by Tai Lung Aik.

Belongs within: Commelinidae.
Contains: Zingiberaceae, Marantaceae.

The Zingiberales are a clade of mostly very large-leaved tropical herbaceous plants. Prominent members include the bananas of the genus Musa and the birds of paradise of the genus Strelitzia. Species of Canna, Indian shot, are commonly cultivated for their broad foliage and showy flowers. Orchidantha is a Southeast Asian genus producing malodorous flowers with the ovary prolonged into a conspicuous neck.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Giant herbs; no aerial stem except when flowering; SiO2 in bundle sheath; sieve tube plastids also with starch grains; petiole bundles in arcs; guard cells symmetric; cuticular waxes as aggregated rodlets; leaves with distinct petiole, midrib, S-shaped lateral veins and fine cross venation; inflorescence bracts large, persistent; flowers large (>2 cm long), monosymmetric; calyx and corolla combined as tepals; stamens 5, opposite each tepal, adaxial member of inner whorl absent or staminodial; anthers long (>5 mm long); pollen inaperturate, exine at most thin, spinulose, to absent; outer intine thick, channeled; gynoecium inferior, style long, stigma large, wet; ovule with outer integument ≥5 cells across, epidermal cells of nucellus apex radially elongated, suprachalazal tissue well developed; fruit opening laterally, loculicidal; seeds arillate, operculate; operculum testal, micropylar collar developing from outer integument, forming annular inpushing in perisperm surrounding operculum, endotesta sclerotised and silicified, thickening often U-shaped in t.s.; endosperm nuclear, perisperm s.l. present, reserves starchy, embryo plug-like; cotyledon not photosynthetic, ligulate, collar roots present; six nucleotide deletion in atpA.

<==Zingiberales [Cannales]
    |  i. s.: Tricostatocarpon silvapinedaeR-R03
    |--Strelitziaceae [Strelitziineae]DS04
    |    |--RavenalaDS04
    |    |    |--R. guianensisL16
    |    |    `--R. madagascariensisDS04
    |    |--Phenakospermum guyannenseK06
    |    `--StrelitziaDS04
    |         |--S. angustataT-W89
    |         |--S. nicolaiDS04
    |         `--S. reginaeBL04
    `--+--Cannaceae [Cannineae, Scitamineae]DS04
       |    |--Cannaites intertrappea Trivedi & Verma 1971CBH93
       |    `--Canna L. 1753St87
       |         |--*C. indica Linnaeus 1753St87
       |         |--C. edulisSt87
       |         |--C. × generalis Bailey 1923St87
       |         |--C. glaucaD37
       |         |--C. jaegerianaJ87
       |         `--C. × orchiodes Bailey 1923 [C. flaccida × C. × generalis]St87
       |--Heliconia [Heliconiaceae, Heliconiineae]DS04
       |    |  i. s.: H. bicolorT-W89
       |    |         H. bihaiJ87
       |    |         H. caribaeaF11
       |    |         H. edwardus-rex Hort. Sander 1903L16
       |    |         H. indicaDS04
       |    |         H. metallicaF11
       |    |         H. micholitzii Ridley 1908L16
       |    |         H. psittacorumCN99
       |    |         H. sanguineaT-W89
       |    |         H. trinidatisSW95
       |    |         H. wagnerianaC09
       |    |--H. sect. StenochlamysL16
       |    |    |--H. acuminataL16
       |    |    |--H. aequatoriensis Loesener 1916L16
       |    |    |--H. affinis Loesener 1916L16
       |    |    |--H. aurantiacaL16
       |    |    |--H. aureo-rosea Loesener 1916L16
       |    |    |--H. choconianaL16
       |    |    |--H. densifloraL16
       |    |    |--H. hirsuta L. fil. 1781 [incl. Limnocharis haenkei Presl 1830]L16
       |    |    |    |--H. h. var. hirsutaL16
       |    |    |    `--H. h. var. villosula Loesener 1916L16
       |    |    |--H. latispathaL16
       |    |    |--H. lingulataL16
       |    |    |--H. roseo-flava Loesener 1916L16
       |    |    |--H. schumanniana Loesener 1916L16
       |    |    |    |--H. s. var. schumannianaL16
       |    |    |    |--H. s. var. acreana Loesener 1916L16
       |    |    |    |--H. s. var. apicirubra Loesener 1916L16
       |    |    |    `--H. s. var. basirubra Loesener 1916L16
       |    |    |--H. uleana Loesener 1916L16
       |    |    |--H. variegata Loesener 1916L16
       |    |    `--H. weberbaueri Loesener 1916L16
       |    `--H. sect. TaeniostrobusL16
       |         |--H. juruana Loesener 1916L16
       |         |--H. pendulaL16
       |         |--H. penduloides Loesener 1916L16
       |         |--H. pruinosa Loesener 1916L16
       |         |--H. rostrataL16
       |         `--H. villosaL16
       |  `--CostaceaeKPW02
       |       |--Tapeinochilos Miq. 1868DS04, Sm87
       |       |    `--T. ananassae (Hassk.) Schumann 1899 (see below for synonymy)Sm87
       |       `--+--+--Monocostus uniflorusDS04
       |          |  `--Dimerocostus argenteusDS04
       |          `--Costus L. 1753DS04, Sm87
       |               |--*C. arabicus L. 1753Sm87
       |               |--C. argyrophyllusW66
       |               |--C. dubiusSm87
       |               |--C. lateriflorusDS04
       |               |--C. potierae Muell. 1864Sm87
       |               `--C. speciosusK03
       |--Orchidantha Brown 1886PJ04 [LowiaceaeDS04, Lowiineae]
       |    |--O. borneensis Brown 1886PJ04
       |    |--O. chinensis Wu 1964PJ04
       |    |--O. fimbriata Holttum 1970PJ04
       |    |--O. holttumii Larsen 1993PJ04
       |    |--O. inouei Nagamasu & Sakai 1999PJ04
       |    |--O. insularis Wu 1964PJ04
       |    |--O. laotica Larsen 1961PJ04
       |    |--O. longiflora [=Lowia longiflora Scortechini 1886]PJ04
       |    |--O. longisepala Fang & Qin 1996PJ04
       |    |--O. maxillarioides [=Protamomum maxillarioides Ridley 1893]PJ04
       |    |--O. siamensis Larsen 1961PJ04
       |    `--O. vietnamica Larsen 1973PJ04

Tapeinochilos ananassae (Hassk.) Schumann 1899 [=Costus ananassae Hassk. 1866; incl. C. pungens Teysmann & Binnend. 1867, *Tapeinochilos pungens (Teysmann & Binnend.) Miq. 1866, T. pungens var. queenslandiae Bailey 1902, T. queenslandiae (Bailey) Schumann 1904]Sm87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BL04] Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (3): 787–792.

[C09] Chaverri, L. G. 2009. Culicidae (mosquitos, zancudos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 369–388. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CN99] Colwell, R. K., & P. Naskrecki. 1999. The volution of host-plant affiliation, body size and sexual dimorphism in hummingbird flower mites (Ascidae: Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius). In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 79–86. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KPW02] Kress, W. J., L. M. Prince & K. J. Williams. 2002. The phylogeny and a new classification of the gingers (Zingiberaceae): evidence from molecular data. American Journal of Botany 89 (11): 1682–1696.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[L16] Loesener, T. 1916. Musaceae americanae tropicae, imprimis Weberbauerianae. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 117): 5–14.

[PJ04] Pedersen, L. B., & B. Johansen. 2004. Anatomy of the unusual stigma in Orchidantha (Lowiaceae). American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 299–305.

[R-R03] Rodriguez-de la Rosa, R. A. 2003. Pterosaur tracks from the latest Campanian Cerro del Pueblo Formation of sputheastern Coahuila, Mexico. In: Buffetaut, E., & J.-M. Mazin (eds) Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society Special Publications 217: 275–282. The Geological Society: London.

[SW95] Seeman, O. D., & D. E. Walter. 1995. Life history of Afrocypholaelaps africana (Evans) (Acari: Ameroseiidae), a mite inhabiting mangrove flowers and phoretic on honeybees. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 34: 45–50.

[Sm87] Smith, R. M. 1987. Costaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 34–37.

[St87] Stanley, T. D. 1987. Cannaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 38–39.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537–556.

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