Dalcera abrasa, copyright Bernard Dupont.

Belongs within: Apoditrysia.
Contains: Limacodidae, Lacturidae, Procris, Zygaena.

The Zygaenoidea are a group of moths with slug-like larvae that often feed exposed. The proboscis is well developed in members of the Zygaenidae but reduced or absent in other families. Adult Zygaenidae, known as burnets or foresters, often fly and feed on flowers during the day. The Chalcosiinae are primarily tropical, butterfly-like zygaenids with slender bodies and broad wings (Richards & Davies 1977).

Larvae of the family Epipyropidae are ectoparasites on fulgoroid planthoppers. The Australian endemic genus Cyclotorna has larvae that are initially parasitic on Hemiptera then become predatory inquilines of ants (Nielsen & Common 1991). The Megalopygidae are a primarily New World family with a small number of species in northern Africa, characterised by hind wings with with vein Sc + R1 coincident with the cell to the middle or beyond it (Richards & Davies 1977).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to large; ocelli and chaetosemata present or absent; M often present in cell, CuP usually present, hind wing with Sc+R1 not approximate to Rs beyond cell. Larva stout, sluggish, feeding exposed or ectoparasitic on planthoppers or in ant nests. Pupa relatively broad and short, with dorsal spines, and spiracles of first abdominal segment visible (except in Epipyropidae); protruded at ecdysis.

    |  |  `--Dalcera [Dalceridae, Dalcerinae]KP19
    |  |       |--D. abrasaKP19
    |  |       |--D. ampelaD01
    |  |       `--D. necoda Druce 1901D01
    |  `--Megalopygidae [Lagoidae]KP19
    |       |--Lagoa crispataP27
    |       |--TrosiaKP19
    |       `--MegalopygeKP19
    |            |--M. crispataKP19
    |            `--M. lanata (Cramer 1780) [incl. Rhabdosia tharops (Stoll 1781)]NO08
            |  i. s.: Levuana iridescensH91
            |         Heteropan dolensH91
            |         PollanisusNC91
            |           |--P. iridescensP27
            |           |--P. nielseniZS10
            |           |--P. trimaculusC91
            |           `--P. viridipulverulentaNC91
            |         HystiaeaDS73
            |           |--H. amazonicaDS73
            |           `--H. proserpinaDS73
            |         ErasmiaGE05
            |           |--E. alirisDS73
            |           |--E. pulchellaDS73
            |           `--E. sanguifluaDS73
            |         Rjabovia Efetov & Tarmann 1995F05
            |           `--*R. horni (Alberti 1937) [=Procris horni]F05
            |         Solaniterna Efetov 2004F05
            |           `--*S. subsolana (Staudinger 1862) [=Ino subsolana]F05
            |         Tremewania Efetov & Tarmann 1999F05
            |           `--*T. notata (Zeller 1847) [=Atychia notata]F05
            |         Wiegelia Efetov & Tarman 1995F05
            |           `--*W. amasina (Herrich-Schäffer 1851) [=Procris amasina]F05
            |         Thyrassia inconcinnaNC91
            |         Hestiochora Meyrick 1886M86
            |           |--H. erythrota Meyrick 1886M86
            |           |--H. rufiventris [=Procris rufiventris]M86
            |           |--H. tricolorNC91 [=Procris tricolorM86]
            |           `--H. xanthocoma Meyrick 1886M86
            |         Burlacena aegerioidesNC91
            |         OnceropygaNC91
            |         Brachartona catoxanthaZ93
            |         HomophylotisC70
            |         Setiodes bahamensis Dyar 1899H01
            |         Cacosoma Felder in Felder & Rogenhofer 1874E00
            |         Himantopterus [Himantopteridae, Thymaridae]RD77
            `--Chalcosiinae [Chalcosiidae]DS73
                 |--Clelea sapphirinaWM66
                 |--Phalanna polymenaWM66
                 |--Elcysma westwoodiiRD77, KVV96
                 |    |--C. maculataDS73
                 |    `--C. mooreiDS73
                 `--Histia rhodopeRD77, F92
                      |--H. r. rhodopeF92
                      `--H. r. nigrinusF92
Zygaenoidea incertae sedis:
  Heterogynis [Heterogynidae]RD77
  CyclotornaNC91 [CyclotornidaeGE05]
    |--C. egenaNC91
    `--C. monocentraNC91
    |--Epipomponia nawaiKP19
    |    |--H. melanochromaNC91
    |    `--H. schawerdaeA71
         |--F. cerolestesA71
         `--F. eurybrachydisA71

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[D01] Druce, H. 1901. Descriptions of some new species of Lepidoptera from east Africa and tropical America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 432–444.

[E00] Engel, M. S. 2000. Classification of the bee tribe Augochlorini (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 250: 1–89.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Hampson, G. F. 1901. The Lepidoptera-Phalaenae of the Bahamas. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 246–261.

[H91] Howarth, F. G. 1991. Environmental impacts of classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 485–509.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[KVV96] Kroon, A., R. L. Voenendaal & A. Veerman. 1996. Does the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) respond to photoperiod in a quantitative manner? In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 5–7. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. Revision of Australian Lepidoptera. I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 687–802.

[NO08] Nässig, W. A., & R. G. Oberprieler. 2008. An annotated catalogue of the genera of Eupterotidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 53–80.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

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