Zygnematophyceae

Spirogyra pratensis, from the University of Texas at Austin.

Belongs within: Streptophyta.
Contains: Desmidiales, Zygnematoideae.

The Zygnematophyceae, conjugating green algae, are a group of unicellular or filamentous green algae found in fresh water. Sexual reproduction occurs via conjugation, with no ciliated stages in the life cycle, and cells lack centrioles (Adl et al. 2019).

<==Zygnematophyceae (see below for synonymy)MK00
    |--+--Netrium digitusMK00
    |  `--DesmidialesMK00
    `--TrichimorphaG64
         |--ThwaitesieaeG64
         |    |--StaurocarpusG64
         |    |    |--S. caerulescensG64
         |    |    |--S. glutinosusG64
         |    |    |--S. gracilisG64
         |    |    |--S. gracillimusG64
         |    |    |--S. quadratusG64
         |    |    `--S. virescensG64
         |    `--MesocarpusG64
         |         |--M. angustusG64
         |         |--M. depressusG64
         |         |--M. intricatusG64
         |         |--M. nummuloidesG64
         |         |--M. ovalisG64
         |         |--M. parvulusG64
         |         |--M. recurvusG64
         |         `--M. scalarisG64
         `--Zygnemataceae [Euconjugatae, Mesotaeniaceae, Mougeotiaceae, Zygnemaceae]MK00
              |  i. s.: LloydiellaHM88
              |         Paleodidymoprium didymum Baschnagel 1966EB93
              |         TyndarideaG64
              |           |--T. anomalaG64
              |           |--T. bicornisG64
              |           |--T. bipartitaG64
              |           |--T. cruciataG64
              |           |--T. insignisG64
              |           |--T. lutescensG64
              |           |--T. pectinataG64
              |           `--T. stagnalisG64
              |         Goniothrix notabilis [=Mesocarpus notabilis]G64
              |         RhynchonemaG64
              |           |--R. abbreviatumG64
              |           |--R. affineG64
              |           |--R. alternatumG64
              |           |--R. angulareG64
              |           |--R. diductumG64
              |           |--R. dubiumG64
              |           |--R. hassallii [=Zygnema hassallii]G64
              |           |--R. intermediumG64
              |           |--R. jenneriG64
              |           |--R. malleolumG64
              |           |--R. minimumG64
              |           |--R. quadratum [=Zygnema quadratum]G64
              |           |--R. rostratum [=Zygnema rostratum]G64
              |           |--R. vesicatumG64
              |           `--R. woodsiiG64
              |         Spirochroma mirabile [=Zygnema mirabile]G64
              |--ZygnematoideaeHM88
              `--SpirogyroideaeHM88
                   |--+--TemnogyraHM88
                   |  `--Sirogonium Kützing 1843MK00, HM88
                   |       |--S. floridanum (Transeau) Smith 1933HM88
                   |       |--S. inflatum Dixit 1937HM88
                   |       |--S. melanosporum (Randhawa) Transeau 1944HM88
                   |       |--S. phacosporum Skuja 1949HM88
                   |       |--S. pseudofloridanum (Prescott) Transeau 1944HM88
                   |       |--S. reticulatum Randhawa 1958HM88
                   |       |--S. sticticum (Smith) Kützing 1843HM88
                   |       `--S. tenuius (Nordstedt) Transeau 1934HM88
                   `--+--Schizosporis Cookson & Dettmann 1959HM88, P63
                      |    `--S. reticulatusVB02
                      `--+--OvoiditesHM88
                         `--Spirogyra Link 1820MK00, HM88
                              |--S. azygospora Singh 1938HM88
                              |--S. chungkingensis Jao 1935HM88
                              |--S. communis (Hassall) Kützing 1849HM88
                              |--S. crassa Kützing 1843HM88
                              |--S. ellipsosporaSG05
                              |--S. gracilisSG05
                              |--S. hunanensis Jao 1940HM88
                              |--S. jurgensii Kützing 1845HM88
                              |--S. lacustris Czurda 1932HM88
                              |--S. majuscula Kützing 1849HM88
                              |--S. maxima (Hassall) Wittrock 1882HM88
                              |--S. mirabilis (Hassall) Kützing 1849HM88
                              |--S. neglectaSG05
                              |--S. paradoxa Rao 1937HM88
                              |--S. pratensis Transeau 1914HM88
                              |--S. scrobiculataHM88
                              |--S. singularis Nordstedt 1880HM88
                              |--S. submargaritata Godward 1956HM88
                              |--S. varifoveolata Prasad & Dutta 1970HM88
                              `--S. verruculosa Jao 1936HM88

Zygnematophyceae [Conjugales, Conjugatae, Conjugophyceae, Gamophyta, Zygnematales, Zygnematophyta, Zygnemophyceae, Zygnemophyta]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[EB93] Edwards, D., J. G. Baldauf, P. R. Brown, K. J. Dorning, M. Feist, L. T. Gallagher, N. Grambast-Fessard, M. B. Hart, A. J. Powell & R. Riding. 1993. ‘Algae’. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 15–40. Chapman & Hall: London.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[HM88] Hoshaw, R. W., & R. M. McCourt. 1988. The Zygnemataceae (Chlorophyta): a twenty-year update of research. Phycologia 27 (4): 511–548.

[MK00] McCourt, R. M., K. G. Karol, J. Bell, K. M. Helm-Bychowski, A. Grajewska, M. F. Wojciechowski & R. W. Hoshaw. 2000. Phylogeny of the conjugating green algae (Zygnemophyceae) based on rbcL sequences. Journal of Phycology 36: 747–758.

[P63] Playford, G. 1963. Lower Carboniferous microfloras of Spitsbergen. Part two. Palaeontology 5 (4): 619–678.

[SG05] Sau, A., & R. K. Gupta. 2005. Algal flora of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 63–86.

[VB02] Vijaya & T. K. Bhattacharji. 2002. An Early Cretaceous age for the Rajmahal traps, Panagarh area, West Bengal: Palynological evidence. Cretaceous Research 23: 789–805.

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