Syrian bean-caper Zygophyllum fabago, copyright Yuriy Kvach.

Belongs within: Fabidae.

The Zygophyllaceae are a group of often spiny herbs and shrubs most diverse in warm, dry regions of the world (Hickman 1993). Notable members include the creosote bush Larrea tridentata which is a dominant shrub in many drier regions of southwestern North America. The lignum vitae species of the genus Guaiacum have been cultivated for medicinal use. Species of the genus Tribulus may be known as caltrops in reference to their spiny fruits.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Herb, shrub, often armed; caudex present or not. Stem branched; nodes often angled, swollen. Leaves 1-compound, opposite; stipules persistent or deciduous; leaflets entire. Inflorescence with flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower bisexual; sepals 5, free, persistent or deciduous; petals 5, free, generally spreading, sometimes twisted and appearing propeller-like; stamens 10, sometimes appendaged on inside base; ovary superior, chambers 5–10, ovules 1–several per chamber, placentas axile. Fruit a capsule or splitting into 5–10 nutlets.

    |  i. s.: KallstroemiaH93
    |           |--K. californicaH93
    |           |--K. grandifloraH93
    |           `--K. parvifloraH93
    |         Bubulcia globifera Massalongo 1858CBH93
    |--Seetzenia [Seetzenioideae]T00
    |    |--MorkilliaT00
    |    |--SericodesT00
    |    `--ViscainoaT00
    |    |--PintoaT00
    |    |--PorlieriaT00
    |    |--BulnesiaT00
    |    |    |--B. arboreaWM09
    |    |    `--B. retamoO06
    |    |--GuaiacumT00
    |    |    |--G. officinaleWM09
    |    |    `--G. sanctum Linnaeus 1753CD07
    |    `--LarreaT00
    |         |--L. cuneifoliaCSF14
    |         |--L. divaricataCSF14
    |         `--L. tridentata [=L. divaricata ssp. tridentata; incl. L. tridentata var. arenaria]H93
    |    |--KelleroniaT00
    |    |--Neoluederitzia sericeocarpaT00, CV06
    |    |--SisynditeT00
    |    |--TribulopisT00
    |    |    |--T. angustifoliaM99
    |    |    `--T. pentandraLK14
    |    |--Balanites [Balanitaceae]T00
    |    |    |--B. aegyptiacaM84
    |    |    `--B. roxburghiiPP07
    |    `--TribulusT00
    |         |--T. cistoidesLK14 [=Kalstroemia cistoidesC55]
    |         |--T. eichlerianusK10
    |         |--T. forrestiiKM08
    |         |--T. lanuginosusPP07
    |         |--T. occidentalisLK14
    |         |--T. pentandrusPP07
    |         |--T. platypteraK90
    |         `--T. terrestrisLK14
         |    |--F. indicaPP07
         |    |--F. laevis [=F. californica ssp. laevis; incl. F. longipes]H93
         |    `--F. pachyacantha [incl. F. californica var. glutinosa]H93
              |--Z. ammophilumK90
              |--Z. apiculatumG04a
              |--Z. applanatumCV06
              |--Z. aurantiacumK90
              |--Z. compressumKM08
              |--Z. cylindrifoliumCV06
              |--Z. dumosumL98
              |--Z. eichwaldiiSP01
              |--Z. eremaeumKM08
              |--Z. fabago [incl. Z. fabago var. brachycarpum]H93
              |--Z. fruticulosumKM08
              |--Z. giessiiCV06
              |--Z. glaucumG04b
              |--Z. hirticauleCV06
              |--Z. longistipulatumCV06
              |--Z. ovatumG04b
              |--Z. simileKM08
              |--Z. simplexAGF98
              |--Z. stapfiiCV06
              `--Z. tesquorumK90

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[CSF14] Campón, F. F., S. L. Silnik & L. A. Fedeli. 2014. Scorpion diversity of the Central Andes in Argentina. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 163–169.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[K90] Keighery, G. J. 1990. Vegetation and flora of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 61–87. Western Australian Museum.

[K10] Keighery, G. 2010. The naturalised vascular plants of the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 299–311.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[L98] Lienhard, C. 1998. Faune de France. France et Régions Limitrophes. 83. Psocoptères Euro-Méditerranéens. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles: Paris.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[M84] Macdonald, D. (ed.) 1984. All the World’s Animals: Carnivores. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[O06] Outes, F. F. 1906. Instrumentos y armas neolíticos de Cochicó (Provincia de Mendoza). Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 277–286.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[SP01] Sasmakov, S. A., Z. M. Putieva, V. V. Kachala, Z. Saatov & A. S. Shushkov. 2001. Triterpene glycosides of Zygophyllum eichwaldii. II. Structure of zygoeichwaloside I. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 37 (4): 347–350.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

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